How to Measure Inventory Performance with Inventory Management Metrics
Utilizing key performance indicators throughout inventory control systems helps drive more effective decisions and strategies. With valuable insight from inventory performance metrics, businesses are able to improve cash flow, reduce operating costs, and increase customer satisfaction.
Calculating how fast the inventory is moving provides valuable insight on how efficiently the inventory is being managed. While having sufficient stock on hand is crucial to keep your supply chain going smoothly, purchasing and storing stock incur corresponding costs. Optimizing inventory levels keeps a healthy balance between managing costs and maintaining enough inventory to sustain operations.
Determining which inventory performance metrics to monitor
It’s important to measure how your business operates, in order to create more transparency into profits over time. If you are coming up with a KPI strategy from scratch, it can be daunting to know exactly which inventory management metrics to assess for your business.
For example, if you own a hardware store, you might first consider measuring whether you have enough stock items on hand to meet the needs of customers. However, let’s say you want to understand availability of your items. A different metric, such as sell-through rate, could give you a better sense of percentage of units sold, compared to available units.
We recommend identifying the key functions of your business to determine the best inventory performance metrics to adopt for your business. First, look at what the value is that your business brings to customers. For example, if you are a freight company, the value you bring is how many containers you have in supply to meet the needs of customers. Quantity in stock, as well as time, are both two factors you should consider in this situation. Let’s take a look at examples of 3 inventory KPIs to consider for your business.
3 Important Inventory management KPIs to monitor
While these metrics provide an extended view of the stocking performance of a plant, the number of inventory turns is most commonly used to measure success of inventory levels.
1. Inventory turnover
To measure performance in inventory management, one of the most common metrics to use is “number of inventory turns.” This number is calculated using the ratio of the value of purchased stock to the value of stock on hand. The metric, number of inventory turns, aims to measure the movement of stock. The higher the turnover, the less time your inventory spends sitting in storage.
Calculating Inventory Turns
The number of inventory turns, also known as stock turn, is calculated by taking the value of stock purchased, divided by the value of stock on hand.
In equation form:
Inventory turns = Value of stock purchased/Value of stock on hand
Value of stock purchased = the total value of inventory items purchased over a period of time
Value of stock on hand = the current value of inventory that is in stock
For example, if over a period of one month the total value of purchases amounted to $5,000 while the current value of stock on hand is $2,500, then inventory turns can be calculated as:
Inventory turns = $5,000,000/$2,500,000 = 2
What is a good Inventory turn ratio? Target value of 1.0
As a rule of thumb, the Society for Maintenance & Reliability Professionals (SMRP) suggests an inventory turn value greater than 1.0 when accounting for the total inventory, and a value greater than 3.0 when accounting for inventory without critical spares.
2. Stock outs
The metric “stock outs” is the frequency of inventory requests without available stock. Most frequently, stock outs impact the entire supply chain of your business. For customers, it can be extremely frustrating when they have to wait on a business for available procuts, which can translate into reduced loyalty and business. Some causes of stock outs include failure to consistently manage inventory, or machine breakdowns that lead to delays.
Calculating Stock Outs
The number of stock outs, or frequency of inventory requests without available stock, is measured by taking the percentage of number of stock unable to be supplied in terms of monthly or annual sales volume
In equation form:
Stock outs = Frequency of stock outs / Monthly sales volume
Stock outs = Frequency of stock outs/ Annual sales volume
For example, if 300 customer orders were not able to be fulfilled out of 1000 total orders for the month, the monthly stock out percentage would be 30%.
3. Inactive stock
Inactive stock is the amount of non-critical stock that remains unused over a period of time,
Appropriate levels of inventory, as measured using the number of inventory turns, allow plant personnel to take steps towards lowering costs (reducing spending on unneeded inventory) while increasing operational productivity (preventing stock outs).
4. Lost Sales
Another great metric for your business is lost sales, which looks at the frequency a customer asks for an item, but you do not have it in stock, so they go elsewhere. Factors that are important in this calculation include average daily demand, forecasted amount, and customer demand. Having a strong inventory management program prevents businesses from incurring lost sales over time. However, lost sales happen to even the best of business owners.
Calculating Lost Sales
Average daily demand = Current period seasonalized Forecast / number of days in the period
Lost Sales Quantity = Average daily demand X # Days out of Stock
5. Carrying cost of inventory
An invaluable metric for measuring how much of a manufacturer’s working capital is tied up in inventory, this metric provides insights into the hard-to-find costs of handling items. These include put-away, costs of obsolescence and how effective warehouse management systems (WMS) are in reducing fulfillment costs.
As discussed in the sections above, comparing carrying cost and inventory turnover with your contribution margins is a great way to see which items are worth the extra time in your warehouse.
6. Order Cycle Time
Order cycle time is the time gap between placing one order and the next order. This metric is also referred to as order lead time, but order cycle time is the more popular iteration. Order cycle time measures the time from when a customer places an order to when they receive their purchased product. This metric reflects how effective your inventory management, supply chain, production and fulfillment operations are.
Order cycle time also sometimes refers to the time between the placement of two back-to-back orders or the successful delivery of two consecutive orders. Regardless of how your company defines these metrics, you should still measure them to get a comprehensive view of your order fulfillment process and where you could improve.
Calculating order cycle time
To calculate the order cycle time, you need to first figure out the time order demand is met, and then figure out backorders.
Time during which demand is met= (Optimal order quantity-optimal amount to be backordered)/ Average demand
Backorder time= Optimal amount to be backordered/Average Demand
Order cycle = time during which demand is met + back order time
Inventory Management Software Can Help
The key to a meaningful inventory metric is collecting accurate data, and doing so efficiently. Gathering accurate inventory data, while exerting minimal manual effort, is best achieved using inventory management software.
Using inventory management software can keep track of your inventory purchases and usages as your purchase orders and/or work orders are issued. This relieves individual workers of a lot of the manual tracking, thereby allowing for a consolidated database of and easy access to metrics about the flow of inventory.