Staff & Training

How Maintenance Will Revolutionize the World (Chapter 4, Part 2)

Ryan Chan

*Over the next few weeks, UpKeep will be releasing chapters from our upcoming publication, How Maintenance Will Revolutionize the World. Chapter 4.1 can be found here.


PHASE 2  – MAINTENANCE VS RELIABILITY

STEP 1 – Understand failure modes

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is a helpful tool to: (a) recognize and evaluate the potential failure(s) of an item or process and the effects of that failure, and (b) identify actions that could eliminate or reduce the likelihood of the potential failure occurring (probability of occurrence). 

The performance of an asset relates to its current ability to meet current and future demands. Assets can fail in four major ways, known as primary failure modes, which can be used to determine the most appropriate investment strategies relevant to the asset.

The four Primary Failure Modes are: Physical Mortality, Level of Service, Capacity, and Financial Efficiency.

We have included a step-by-step process below to begin assigning failure modes to your assets and make a prioritized plan as an organization. With each example, a template has been provided at the end of that step for you to follow along.

STEP 2 – Organize your assets and brainstorm failure modes in the template provided.

Think of anything that can go wrong and use the chart below of examples to help you. 

EXAMPLE:
Failure Mode Description and Drivers Assessment Technique Management Strategy
Physical Mortality Asset deterioration reduces performance below an acceptable level 

Age, Usage, Operational Stresses, Acts of Nature

Condition 

Level 1 – Staff Knowledge – Desktop ‘Delphi’ 

Level 2 – Intermediate level Physical Inspection (See Appendix A) 

Level 3 – Advanced Physical Testing and inspection

Renewal, O&M Optimization
Capacity Demand exceeds design capacity 

Growth and System Expansion

Capacity 

Level 1 – Staff Knowledge – Desktop ‘Delphi’ 

Level 2 – Desktop Capacity Modeling 

Level 3 – Capacity Modeling with Field Data

Redesign
Level of Service Functional and Reliability requirements exceed design capability 

 

Regulations, Quality, Safety, Service, Noise, Odor 

Function 

Level 1 – Staff Knowledge – Desktop ‘Delphi’ 

Level 2 – Process Assessment 

Level 3 – Strategic Planning 

Reliability 

Level 1 – Staff Knowledge – Desktop ‘Delphi’ 

Level 2 – Desktop Analysis

Level 3 – Work Order History (MTBF)

Redesign, O&M Optimization
Financial Efficiency Cost of Operation exceeds feasible alternatives 

New Technology, Wear, Spare Parts

Efficiency 

Level 1 – Staff Knowledge – Desktop ‘Delphi’ 

Level 2 – Desktop LCCA (Estimated Data) 

Level 3 – LCCA with Field Data

Replace
TEMPLATE:
Asset Name Possible Failure Modes
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEP 3 – Rate the likelihood of occurrence of each failure mode based on the below rubric.

Add your rating to your template. 

EXAMPLE:
Component Lifecycle - Roof Example
Likelihood of Occurrence Criteria: Possible Failure Rates/Probability of Failure Rating
Extremely High Failure rate of less than 5 FPMH/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.2 10
Very High  Failure rate of less than 2 FPMH/Probability of Failure During  9
High  Failure rate of less than 1 FPMH/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.05 8
Moderately High Failure rate of less than 200 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.01 7
Moderate Failure rate of less than 100 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.005 6
Moderately Low  Failure rate of less than 20 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.001 5
Low  Failure rate of less than 10 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.0005 4
Very Low  Failure rate of less than 2 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.0001 3
Extremely Low  Failure rate of less than 1 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.00005 2
Remote Failure rate of less than 0.2 FIT/Probability of Failure During Mission <0.00001 1
TEMPLATE:
Asset Name Possible Failure Modes Likelihood
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEP 4 – Rate the severity of each failure mode for your assets using the below rubric as a guide.

Add your severity rating to your template.

EXAMPLE:

Severity

Criteria

Rating

Extremely High

Catastrophic: Serious injury or loss of life.

10

Very High

9

High

8

Moderately High

7

Moderate

6

Moderately Low

5

Low

4

Very Low

3

Extremely Low

2

Remote

Minor: No loss of downtime.

1


TEMPLATE:

Asset Name

Possible Failure Modes

Likelihood

Severity

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEP 5 – Assign a priority number to each asset.

To do this, multiple your severity rating x your likelihood of occurrence rating. Here, you can see how our example results in clear priority numbers. Add your priority numbers in your template.Severity Mitigation Decision Matrix

EXAMPLE:

Asset Name

Asset Category

Primary Failure mode

Likelihood of occurrence

Severity

Risk Priority Number (Severity * Occurrence)

HVAC – Air Filtration

HVAC

Outside air filtration blockage. (normal & abnormal events)

3

6

18

HVAC – Air Filtration

HVAC

10

7

70

Template:

Asset Name Possible Failure Modes Likelihood Severity Risk Priority Number (Severity * Occurrence)
 

 

 

 

 

 

STEP 6 – Understand mitigation by risk priority.

Reorganize your template so that you are now viewing your assets from most important to least. Now, brainstorm a plan of actions or mitigations you can take to avoid failure in the first place.

EXAMPLE:

Asset Name

Asset Category

Primary Failure mode

Severity

Likelihood of occurrence

Risk Priority Number (Severity * Occurrence)

Mitigation / Action Plan

HVAC – Air Filtration

HVAC

Outside air filtration blockage. (normal & abnormal events)

6 due to bio containment

3

18

Duplicate outside air filtration

Predictive fouling rate

HVAC – Air Filtration

HVAC

Fan failure

9 due to loss of control of critical parameters.

Loss of pressure

6

54

Standby fans

Vibration monitor

http://research.me.udel.edu/~jglancey/FailureAnalysis.pdf

TEMPLATE:

Asset Name

Possible Failure Modes

Likelihood

Severity

Risk Priority Number (Severity * Occurrence)

 

 

 

 

 

 

STEP 7 – Revisit your plan every Quarter.

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